As my Marine Corps dad use to say “Semper Fi.” (Semper fidelis is a Latin phrase that means “always faithful” or “always loyal”)

I am so proud of the work of the lawyers and staff at Marler Clark for finding Semper Fi in what we do for our clients.

Bloomberg’s Julie Steinberg reported oFood services company Sodexo Management Inc. faces punitive damages claims stemming from an E. coli outbreak at two California Marine Corps bases, after a federal court in California allowed eight plaintiffs to amend their complaints.

Vincent Grano and the other Marine recruits alleged they were sickened in 2017 from undercooked beef served at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot and Camp Pendleton in San Diego.

Several were left with kidney injuries that may require transplantation later in life, and two now ambulate with prosthetic hips. None were older than 20 at the time of the outbreak, and all lost their military careers, according to a filing in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California.

The outbreak sickened more than 230 recruits, but not all to the same severity, the filing said.

The plaintiffs sufficiently alleged a conscious disregard of risk, the standard for punitive damages under Calfornia law, the court said Tuesday. They also alleged the risk of food-borne illness was knowable to Sodexo and that the company had a long-standing pattern of inaction in addressing the risk, Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel said.

Sodexo employees and management officials had specific knowledge of the risks posed by undercooked beef and failed to review their meat-cooking processes over the course of a 15 to 17 year period leading up to the outbreak, the plaintiffs allege.

Sodexo didn’t address the mishandling of raw ground beef patties prior to cooking, failed to assure that final hamburger cook temperatures were consistently taken and recorded, and failed to assure that a safe combination of cook time and temperature was in use, the proposed amended lawsuits say.

At this juncture, the court’s task isn’t to award punitive damages ascertain whether they are warranted, but only to consider whether the proposed amended pleadings allege facts that would constitute a valid claim for punitive damages, it noted.

Marler Clark LLP represented the plaintiffs. Rodolff Law Firm APC and Koeller, Nebeker, Carlson & Haluck represented Sodexo.

The case is Grano v. Sodexo, Inc., S.D. Cal., No. 3:18-cv-01818, 8/18/20.

Here are some documents for easy downloading and reading:

Grano – No 173 SDX Opposition to MT Amend Complaints

Grano – No 174 Reply in Support of MFLTF Amended Complaints

Grano – No. 161 Motion FLTF Amended Complaints

Grano – No. 175 Order Granting Motion to File Amended Complaints

No 161-2 Dec of A. Dunkleberger

No 161-5 Dec of Rebecca Dunkleberger

No 161-6 Dec of Richard Raymond, MD

No 161-8 Memo of PandA ISO MFLTF Amended Complaints

No. 161- 4 Dec of Kirk Smith

No. 161-3 Dec of Erik Salcido

And, I really LOVE emails.

Here is the CDC Abstract:

Authors: Amelia Keaton, R. Hassan, S. Luna, I. Lee, R. Magalhaes, M. Bidlack, L. Smith, R. Maves, D. Freer, K. Flinn, G. Monk, P. Graf, K. Trinh, J. Crandall, D. Noveroske, G. Fortenberry, L. Ramos, R. Recio, C. Peak, E. McDonald, T. Waltz, K. Patel, D. Wagner, J. Espiritu, L. Christensen, L. Gieraltowski

Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a substantial cause of foodborne illness and a cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In November 2017, CDC assisted the US Navy in a response to an outbreak of STEC illnesses in recruits at a Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego (MCRD). We investigated to determine the source of this outbreak and identify prevention and mitigation measures.

Methods: In October 2017, medical providers identified a high number of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses at MCRD. Recruits with diarrhea submitted stool specimens for culture and/or culture-independent diagnostic testing (CIDT) for GI pathogens. We performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on culture isolates. Case-patients were then defined as follows: confirmed (PFGE-confirmed STEC infection matching outbreak strains), probable (diagnosis of HUS and/or CIDT evidence of STEC), and suspected (bloody diarrhea). We conducted environmental evaluations of facilities, training areas, and barracks. A case-control study was performed using PFGE-confirmed case-patients and platoon-matched controls. We performed product traceback for foods identified as exposure risks by interview or case-control study.

Results: We identified 62 confirmed, 62 probable, and 120 suspected case-patients. Thirty case-patients required hospitalization and 15 had HUS. Case-patient ages ranged from 17-28 years (median: 18 years). Poor hygiene practices among recruits and inconsistent cooking temperatures within dining facilities were noted. Forty-three case-patients and 135 controls were interviewed about food, hygiene, and environmental exposures. Consumption of undercooked beef was found to be significantly associated with illness, (mOR 2.40, CI 1.04-5.72, p=0.04). We identified a single ground beef supplier for MCRD, but MCRD records did not document which specific lots of ground beef were used.

Conclusions: Case-control analysis and environmental observations suggested undercooked ground beef as a potential source for this outbreak. We recommended the Navy and Marine Corps retain lot information, address food handling concerns, and improve hygiene among recruits.

REF:, page 117

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is in the process of updating several of its About-sites for content and clarity, in hopes of educating the public about foodborne illnesses, such as Botulism, Campylobacter, Cyclospora, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Listeria, Norovirus, Salmonella, Shigella  and their complications.

The update involves adding tables and images in an effort to render the sites more user-friendly, and refreshing content to reflect the latest, most accurate information. To accomplish the sizable task of updating its dozen websites, Marler Clark has enlisted the help of some of the nation’s leading medical and food safety experts.

Thus far, the following websites, detailing the complications associated with foodborne illnesses have been relaunched:

Hemolytic uremic syndrome was first described in 1955, but it was not known to be secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections until 1983. HUS is now recognized as a cause of acute kidney failure in infants and young children. Adolescents and adults are also susceptible, as are the elderly, who often have severe disease and are at significant risk of death from the disease.

Guillain-Barré syndrome is a disorder in which the body’s immune response, typically to an infection, causes nerve damage. The syndrome is rare, affecting about one to two people in 100,000 each year. It can present as a very mild case of brief weakness to devastating paralysis, affecting the muscles that allow a person to breathe on their own.

Formerly known as Reiter syndrome, reactive arthritis (ReA) is joint inflammation that occurs after a bacterial infection originating outside the joints (i.e., “extra-articular”). Acute ReA occurs several days or weeks after the antecedent infection. It is typically monoarticular (involving one joint) or oligoarticular (involving just a few joints, usually less than six). The lower extremities are most commonly involved, but it can also involve the arms and spine.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The hallmark symptoms of IBS are abdominal pain and altered bowel habits.

Do not eat, serve, or sell recalled onions from Thomson International, Inc., or food made with these onions. Onion types include red, white, yellow, and sweet yellow varieties. Other companies have also recalled food made with recalled onions, such as cheese dip and chicken salads.

  • At home, check your refrigerator and kitchen for recalled onions or foods made with them, such as salads, wraps, tacos, sandwiches, etc.
    • Check the package of raw onions or look for a sticker on the onion to see if it is from Thomson International, Inc., or one of the brand names below. If it is, don’t eat it. Throw it away.
      • Other brand names that may be on labels include: Thomson Premium, TLC Thomson International, Tender Loving Care, El Competitor, Hartley’s Best, Onions 52, Majestic, Imperial Fresh, Kroger, Utah Onions, and Food Lion.
      • See the recall notice to check for further details and pictures of the products.
    • Some foods made with recalled onions, such as deli salads and vegetable mixes, have also been recalled, and additional recalls of raw onions sold at Giant Eagle, Publix, and Trader Joe’s, have occurred. Check your homes for the recalled products listed below.
    • If you can’t tell where your onions are from, don’t eat them. Throw them away.
    • If you used onions to make any other food and don’t know where the onions were from, don’t eat the food. Throw it away, even if some of it was eaten and no one got sick.
    • Wash and sanitize any surfaces that may have come in contact with onions or their packaging, such as countertops, storage bins, refrigerator drawers, knives, and cutting boards.
  • When you order food from a restaurant or shop for food, check with the restaurant or grocery store to make sure they are not serving or selling recalled onions from Thomson International, Inc., or any foods prepared with recalled onions, including foods such as salads, sandwiches, tacos, salsas, and dips.
    • If they don’t know where their onions are from, don’t buy the product.
    • People sickened in this outbreak reported eating onions in freshly prepared foods, including salads, sandwiches, tacos, salsas, and dips.

Advice to Restaurants, Retailers, and Suppliers

  • Restaurants and retailers should not serve or sell recalled onions from Thomson International, Inc., or food prepared with these onions.
    • If you don’t know where your onions are from, don’t serve or sell them.
    • Clean and sanitize all surfaces that onions have come in contact with, including cutting boards, countertops, slicers, utensils, and storage bins.
  • Suppliers, distributors, and others in the supply chain should not ship or sell recalled onions from Thomson International, Inc.
    • Suppliers and distributors that repackage raw onions should clean and sanitize any surfaces and storage bins that may have come in contact with recalled onions.


Additional recalls related to this outbreak may occur. Please refer to the FSIS and FDA websites for the latest recall information.

  • On August 12, cheese dips were recalled from the following stores: KrogerKroger Mid-AtlanticKroger Delta DivisionFry’s Food StoresFred Meyer, and Smith’s.
  • On August 10, Progressive Produce LLC recalled red onions sold at Trader Joe’s stores in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah as well as yellow onions sold in Ralph’s stores in California.
  • On August 10, Spokane Produce Inc. recalled salsas that were made from recalled onions.
  • On August 5, Taylor Farms issued a recall of foods that were made from recalled onions.
  • On August 5, Publix recalled onions sold in bulk at stores in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
  • On August 5, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) issued a public health alert for products made with recalled onions. Check the alert for product details and pictures. USDA-FSIS will update the public health alert as more information becomes available.
  • On August 1, Giant Eagle recalled onions and foods made with recalled onions sold in stores across Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, and Maryland.
  • On August 1, 2020, Thomson International, Inc., voluntarily recalled red, yellow, white, and sweet yellow onions because they may be contaminated with Salmonella.
    • Onions were distributed to wholesalers, restaurants, and retail stores in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
    • Onions were distributed in bulk cartons and mesh sacks ranging from 2 to 50 pounds under these brand names: Thomson Premium, TLC Thomson International, Tender Loving Care, El Competitor, Hartley’s Best, Onions 52, Majestic, Imperial Fresh, Kroger, Utah Onions, and Food Lion.
    • See the recall notice to check for universal product codes (UPC) and pictures of the products.

Because of COVID, we are banned from Canada, but our food products are not.

Cyclospora:  As of July 8, 2020, there are 37 confirmed cases of Cyclospora illness linked to this outbreak in three provinces: Ontario (26), Quebec (10) and Newfoundland and Labrador (1).

Individuals became sick between mid-May and mid-June 2020. One individual has been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 21 and 70 years of age. The majority of cases (76%) are female.

Some of the individuals who became sick reported having eaten certain Fresh Express brand salad products containing iceberg lettuce, red cabbage and carrots before their illnesses occurred. The source of illness for the remaining individuals continues to be under investigation.

Salmonella As of August 7, 2020, there have been 239 confirmed cases of Salmonella Newport illness linked to this outbreak in the following provinces: British Columbia (67), Alberta (149), Saskatchewan (5), Manitoba (13), Ontario (3), Quebec (1) and Prince Edward Island (1).

Individuals became sick between mid-June and late July 2020. Twenty-nine individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 0 and 100 years of age. The majority of cases (54%) are female.

Individuals who became ill reported eating red onions at home, in menu items ordered at restaurants and in residential care settings.

55,836 new COVID-19 cases today and 1,249 deaths.

According to various news outlets, officials inside and outside South Dakota are expressing concern about the potential spread of the coronavirus during an annual motorcycle rally that opens Friday in the Black Hills and typically attracts hundreds of thousands of bikers.

But officials in Sturgis, the town of 7,000 residents that has hosted the rally for 80 years, are not quite as worried.

Here is the money quote:

“I don’t know if we’re concerned about an outbreak,” said Sturgis spokeswoman Christina Steele. “It’s mostly asymptomatic people that could spread this.”

Yes, that is the point of wearing masks, staying apart and not being in large groups – especially in bars.

Officials in neighboring states, however, don’t share that attitude, which some have called cavalier and others have attributed to South Dakota’s libertarian streak.

“We are concerned with any large gathering sustained contact of that nature,” Jan Malcolm, commissioner of the Minnesota Department of Health, said at a news conference earlier this week. “South Dakota has seen its spikes, as well. It’s not like they’re going into an environment that has no risk.”

The 250,000 come from all over the world and once at Sturgis will return to their families and communities – many will carry a deadly passenger COVID-19.

What say you Darwin – survival of the fittest?

(Bakersfield, California) Today, Marler Clark filed a Salmonella Lawsuit on behalf of a Canadian citizen in United States Federal Court in California for her illness linked to Salmonella Newport – tainted onions from Thomson International.  Marler Clark is working with Craig Murphy of Murphy & Murphy on behalf of Kendra Cooper of Edmonton, Alberta, who became sick on July 6 with Salmonella Newport after consuming Thomson red onions contained on a Super Bacon Thickburger from Carl’s Jr. Complaint.Conformed

“This is the second U.S. produced food product that has sickened Canadians as well as U.S. citizens in the last 30 days – first, the Fresh Express Cyclospora outbreak sickened 641 in the U.S. and 37 in Canada – now it is Salmonella sickening at least 516 in the U|.S. and Canada,” said, food safety lawyer, William Marler.  “U.S. producers and regulators need to step up their game or borders will close not only to U.S. citizens due to COVID, but also to food produced in the U.S.,” added Marler.

According to Canadian health authorities, as of August 2, 2020, there have been 120 confirmed cases of Salmonella Newport illness linked to this outbreak in the following provinces: British Columbia (43), Alberta (56), Saskatchewan (4), Manitoba (13), Ontario (2), Quebec (1) and Prince Edward Island (1). Seventeen individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 3 and 100 years of age. The majority of cases (56%) are female.

Whole genome sequencing analysis shows that an outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections in Canada is related genetically to this outbreak in the United States. This means that people in both of these outbreaks are likely to share a common source of infection.

According to the United States CDC and FDA, as of July 29, 2020, a total of 396 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport have been reported from 34 states. Alaska (6), Arizona (14), California (49), Colorado (10), Florida (3), Idaho (5), Illinois (10), Indiana (2), Iowa (15), Kansas (1), Kentucky (1), Maine (4), Maryland (1), Michigan (23), Minnesota (10), Missouri (6), Montana (33), Nebraska (5), Nevada (5), New York (4), North Carolina (3), North Dakota (5), Ohio (7), Oregon (71), Pennsylvania (2), South Carolina (1), South Dakota (11), Tennessee (5), Texas (1), Utah (61), Virginia (4), Washington (2), Wisconsin (5) and Wyoming (11). Fifty-nine hospitalizations have been reported.

Many ill people were identified as part of illness clusters. An illness cluster is defined as two or more people who do not live in the same household who report eating at the same restaurant location, attending a common event, or shopping at the same location of a grocery store in the week before becoming ill.

Twenty-two illness clusters have been identified in seven states. Information from these clusters shows that many ill people ate red onions. The traceback information collected from these illness clusters identified Thomson International, Inc., of Bakersfield, Calif., as a likely source of red onions. Due to the way onions are grown and harvested, other onion types, such as, white, yellow or sweet yellow, may also be contaminated. Additional traceback is ongoing to determine if other onions are linked to the outbreak.

On August 1, 2020, Thomson International, Inc., voluntarily recalled red, yellow, white, and sweet yellow onions because they may be contaminated with Salmonella. Consumers, restaurants, and retailers should not eat, serve, or sell recalled onions from Thomson International, Inc., of Bakersfield, Calif.

Additional Resources:

(San Diego) Today, Marler Clark filed the first Salmonella Lawsuit linked to Salmonella Newport – tainted Onions from Thomson International of Bakersfield in San Diego State Court.  Marler Clark is working with Craig Murphy of Murphy & Murphy on behalf of Keith Robert Willis of San Diego who became sick on July 1 with Salmonella Newport after consuming Thomson red onions.  Mr. Willis continues to be ill. Keith Robert Willis – Complaint FINAL

Investigators in the U.S. and Canada have been collaborating to identify the source of this outbreak. On July 30, 2020, Canadian health officials announced that they had determined red onions from the U.S. to be the potential source of the Canadian outbreak. The Canadian investigation has also prompted a recall warning by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Building on this information, and on epidemiologic information on the U.S. outbreak from CDC, the FDA’s traceback investigation was able to identify Thomson International, Inc. as a likely source of contaminated red onions in the U.S. There have, to date, been 396 reported cases in the United States and 114 in Canada.

United States:

Total Illnesses: 396

Hospitalizations: 59

Illness Onset Date Range: July 12, 2020

States with Cases: AK (6), AZ (14), CA (49), CO (10), FL (3), ID (5), IL (10), IN (2), IA (15), KS (1), KY (1), ME (4), MD (1), MI (23), MN (10), MO (6), MT (33), NE (5), NV (5), NY (4), NC (3), ND (5), OH (7), OR (71), PA (2), SC (1), SD (11), TN (5), TX (1), UT (61), VA (4), WA (2), WI (5), and WY (11).


Total Illnesses: 114

Hospitalizations: 16

Illness Onset Date Range: Mid-June and mid-July 2020.

Provinces with Cases: British Columbia (43), Alberta (55), Manitoba (13), Ontario (2), and Prince Edward Island (1).

Thomson International, Inc. of Bakersfield, California is recalling Red, Yellow, White, and Sweet Yellow Onions shipped from May 1, 2020 through the present. The onions are being recalled because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella.

Salmonella is an organism that can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Healthy persons infected with Salmonella often experience fever, diarrhea (which may be bloody), nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare circumstances, infection with Salmonella can result in the organism getting into the bloodstream and producing more severe illnesses such as arterial infections (i.e., infected aneurysms), endocarditis, and arthritis.

Additional Resources:

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Salmonella outbreaks. The Salmonella lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Salmonella and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $750 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Salmonella lawyers have litigated Salmonella cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as cantaloupe, tomatoes, ground turkey, salami, sprouts, cereal, peanut butter, and food served in restaurants.  The law firm has brought Salmonella lawsuits against such companies as Cargill, ConAgra, Peanut Corporation of America, Sheetz, Taco Bell, Subway and Wal-Mart.

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced a new protocol for the development and registration of antimicrobial treatments for preharvest agricultural water, such as the water used in farm irrigation systems. The protocol was developed through a collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Companies can now use data developed under this protocol to support the EPA registration of products that can treat agricultural water against foodborne bacteria, which could provide farmers with a useful tool to help protect the safety of produce intended for consumers, like romaine lettuce and other leafy greens.

The announcement was made during a webinar on the FDA’s 2020 Leafy Green STEC Action Plan.

“This new protocol is a huge milestone for produce safety and for the Leafy Green Action Plan released by the FDA earlier this year. Working together, the FDA and EPA have supported the development of this protocol that may ultimately help farmers address contamination issues in their water sources and protect consumers from foodborne illness,” said FDA Deputy Commissioner for Food Policy and Response Frank Yiannas. “We must all work together to help ensure the safety of produce to consumers across the country. We will continue to work with our partners in industry, government and academia on this and other longer-term studies on the ecology of human pathogens in specific growing regions, and new efforts as part of the New Era of Smarter Food Safety Initiative.”

“Thanks to the strong partnership between EPA and the FDA, we can now unleash the innovation needed to develop treatment products for the agricultural water used to irrigate our nation’s leafy greens,” said Alexandra Dapolito Dunn, assistant administrator of EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. “We look forward to working with pesticide product manufacturers, innovators, and farmers on this important development that will help protect public health and our environment.”

EPA’s approval of this protocol allows for companies to develop data on the effectiveness of their products in inactivating foodborne bacteria, such as E. coli or Salmonella, in preharvest agricultural water. Companies may use the data developed to support registration of new treatment products, or amendments to current products’ labels, for use against microbial contamination in preharvest agricultural water.

Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of romaine lettuce and other leafy greens have highlighted the need for a viable option for treating agricultural water against foodborne pathogens. While farmers are not required to treat their agricultural water, these treatments could be a valuable tool to help farmers protect the safety of their produce. There currently are no registered antimicrobial treatment products that are authorized for use on agricultural fields, or for treatment of irrigation water systems or ponds. This protocol is an important step toward addressing this lack of available treatments for preharvest agricultural water.

Teams of FDA experts have been working collaboratively with partners in the public and private sectors to help protect agricultural water from the many ways it can be contaminated in the environment or from unsanitary practices on a farm. This effort has included hundreds of farm visits over the past few years. In addition, the FDA intends to release a proposed rule in late 2020, to revise certain agricultural water requirements in the Produce Safety Rule and to address practical implementation challenges while protecting public health. The development and approval of this treatment protocol is one of several steps the agency has taken or intends to take to help improve produce safety, such as through the Leafy Green Action Plan and through the New Era of Smarter Food Safety initiative.

Frank, we have work to do.

According to Canada, as of July 30, 2020, there have been 114 confirmed cases of Salmonella Newport illness linked to this outbreak in the following provinces: British Columbia (43), Alberta (55), Manitoba (13), Ontario (2), and Prince Edward Island (1). The individual from Prince Edward Island reported traveling to Alberta before becoming ill. Saskatchewan has not reported any confirmed illnesses related to this outbreak, but provincial public health authorities are investigating some Salmonella Newport illnesses in the province.

Individuals became sick between mid-June and mid-July 2020. Information is available for 102 illnesses. Out of 102 people, 16 individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 3 and 100 years of age. The majority of cases (56%) are female.

Individuals who became ill reported eating red onions at home, in menu items ordered at restaurants and in residential care settings. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is conducting a food safety investigation. If contaminated food products are identified, CFIA will take the necessary steps to protect the public, including recalling the product as required.

According to Canada, the U.S. CDC is also investigating an outbreak of Salmonella Newport illnesses that have a similar genetic fingerprint to illnesses reported in this outbreak. Investigators in Canada and the U.S. continue to collaborate to exchange information and identify commonalities in the outbreak information that may identify additional sources of illness or help to identify the cause of contamination in the red onions.

The United States has been silent since July 24, 2020.  As of July 23, 2020, a total of 212 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport have been reported from 23 states.

Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 19, 2020, to July 11, 2020, Ill people range in age from 0 to 92 years, with a median age of 40. Fifty-four percent of ill people are female. Of 117 ill people with information available, 31 hospitalizations have been reported. No deaths have been reported.

Whole genome sequencing analysis of 48 isolates from ill people did not predict any antibiotic resistance. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing by CDC’s National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) laboratory is currently underway.

On July 10, 2020, CDC PulseNet identified an outbreak of 13 Salmonella Newport infections in three states. Since being identified, the outbreak has rapidly grown to a total of 212 infections in 23 states.

State and local public health officials are interviewing ill people to determine what they ate and other exposures in the week before their illness started. CDC encourages people experiencing symptoms of a Salmonella infection to report their illness to their local health department and participate in these interviews. This information is vital for public health officials to identify the source of this outbreak and to take steps to prevent additional illnesses.

At this time, the investigation has not identified a specific food, grocery store, or restaurant as the source of this outbreak. CDC will provide more information as it becomes available.